R.S. ZAHARNA       Home       Classes        Weekend Program       Research            Student Projects

Comm.539   International Public Relations
 Spring 2005

Dr.  R. S. Zaharna                                                                                 Phone:  (202) 885-3995
Office: Mary Graydon 301                                                                      E-mail:  zaharna@american.edu
Office hours: Mondays 10-12noon, Tuesday 2-4:30pm
Wednesday 4:00-5:30pm  

My new web address is:  http://www.academic3.american.edu/~zaharna

Course Overview              Assignments         Background References
Required Text

Work plan - Spring 2005 *

January 12         Introduction

January 19         Global Orientation
January 26         Cultural Values & Worldviews /
                            American & International Public Communication

February 2        International CORPORATE  Public Communication
February 9                 Case Studies / Media Relations / Web Analysis

February 16      International SOCIAL  Public Communication /
                                  Social Marketing & Participatory Communication
February 23               Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) & International Organizations

March 2            Tsunami 2004 

March 16         International POLITICAL Public Communication /
                                  Public Diplomacy
March 23                   Propaganda & Information Warfare

March 30         Case Study Proposal Due
April 6             Article Reviews Due

April 13           Forms of Cultural Expression:  Music & Proverbs
                        Forms of National Persuasion:  Flags & Anthems 

April 20          Final Papers Due


 PLEASE email me with your email address.  zaharna@american.edu
 For the Final Project, you have the option of writing a final paper (pdf.file) or creating a web page, both would be published on the Internet, linked from my webpage "International Public Communication Case Studies -- SOC Student Projects".
Guidelines for specific sections to include in your paper/web page are posted in Blackboard.

Overview :  International Public Communication (Relations)

Advances in technology have made communication with and travel to places outside one’s own national borders easier than ever.  As a result, people, ideas, products and services are circling around the globe and coming into contact with each other in ways that would have been unimaginable a decade ago.  While making contact is a critical first step in international communication, being understood is the next.   That understanding requires a new level of communicating.  Advances in technology can take us wherever we want to go, but without advanced communication skills to match, our vision and abilities are limited.

In order to take advantage of the wealth of knowledge on how to reach culturally and politically diverse publics, we will use an interdisciplinary, case-study approach.  We examine the various types of international public communication that are used to reach an audience.

This interdisciplinary approach will draw case studies from a range of study, including, international public relations, integrated marketing communication (international advertising), international social marketing, development and participatory communication,  public diplomacy and propaganda,  international non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and international crisis / humanitarian response.

While these various approaches appear very different, they all share the common goal of communicating with a targeted audience with the intent to inform, educate or persuade in an international context.

I have selected this wide variety of approaches because each approach has grown out of a different academic discipline.  As a result, each approach has strengths that are missing in the other approaches. International public relations, for example, is very strong in the communication and management area of campaign design and implementation -- but it is weak in cultural adaptation.  The approach that has the strongest cultural component is Participatory communication; however, it has a very loose campaign design structure. Social Marketing balances communication and cultural.  Public Diplomacy and propaganda are interesting in that they are idealogically-based in the cultural myths of one culture and yet they are intended to pursuade people of another culture.  This is why some "power propaganda" can seem pretty ridiculous to non-native audiences.

You will be encouraged from the first class to focus on a specific geographical region.  As the class develops, you will want to focus on a particular public communication approach (i.e., public relations, social marketing, participatory communication or public diplomacy).  For the final project, you will be asked to prepare a profile and analysis of an international public communication case study.

A last note:  the Internet.  I know all of academia and the world is talking about the explosion of information on the Internet.  With all that information and all that technology, let's take advantage of it and . . .  explore!

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Require Readings

1.   The course uses the resources of the Internet that are available to researchers and scholars worldwide.  Wherever possible I have tried to provide links so you can move to the information quickly.  I have put the web location addresses in case you get stuck or my limited computer skills didn't quite make it.  I encourage you to browse the web sites and consider how the site is a form of international pr in and of itself.  The information and links provided were collected /compiled from a variety of public domain sources.  Where possible, these texts were sourced from original or unabridged editions of the work.


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1. Interactive Assignments

The assignments are designed to help you integrate the reading materials with the lecture notes as well as explore additional resources on the Internet.  The assignments are spread throughout the semester.  Assignments submitted on the due date (Wednesday) can receive full credit.  Assignments submitted by Friday can receive up to 80% credit.

UNDERGRADUATES - need to complete a total of 5 assignments
GRADUATES - need to complete a total of 7 assignments

** If you do more than the total assignments -- you can drop your lowest grade(s).

Concentration areas- pick ONE from each of the FIVE  areas:

Global Orientation                   (due: Jan 19)               1.1  Country Profile (required)
Cross-Cultural Profiles            (due: Jan 26)                2.1  Kluckhohn Model cultural profile
                                                                                  2.2  Cultural Continuum cultural profile
Corporate communication        (due: Feb 9)               3.1   International PR case study
                                                                                 3.2  Corporate web site analysis
                                                                                 3.3  Cross-cultural Media Analysis

Social communication            (due: Feb 23 )                 4.1  Social marketing case study
                                                                                    4.2  Participatory communication case study
                                                                                    4.3  Profile of international campaign

4.4   Humanitarian Crisis

  Political communication        (due: March 23)          5.1  Public diplomacy - Comparative Analysis
                                                                                5.2  Public Affairs - International Cases
                                                                                5.3  Information Warfare & Propaganda           
GRADING -- For the assignments, I will be looking for

(a) Implications -- have you highlighted the potential implications that the cultural variables could have for designing and implementing an effective campaign in your country, including specifics such as designing messages, selecting appropriate media channels, or gaining audience trust;

(b) Information -- have you provided examples or data from your research to explain your points and included a reference bibliography; 

(c) Insights -- have you offered fresh observations and thought deeply about the connections, implications, complications involved; and

(d) Cultural sensitivity -- are you sensitive to the audience, respectful of their perspective, dignity, and differences.

2. Journal Article Review

The article review is designed to let you explore the field and gather research material that you will need for your final project. You want to choose an article related to your research project and include in your review: (1) summary of the article, (2) main findings, and (3) your assessment of the content of the article.  You can read more about how to write the review by looking at the article review guidelines.

UNDERGRADUATE:  1 Article review
GRADUATES:  2 Articles reviews

** All articles must be from a scholarly journal, please check first to approve journal.

*** BE Sure to attach a copy of the journal article with your critique.

3.  Case Study Proposal and Working Bibliography

Provide a 1 1/2 page brief summary of the Case Study you propose to analyze for your final project.  (1) Briefly describe the case, (2) state category of international public communication; and (3) provide a list of information sources for your case study.

4. Final Project -   International Public Communication - Case Profile

Select an organization, government project, or company campaign to serve as a case profile. Sections of paper are: (1) Introduction; (2) Country Profile; (3) Case Profile; (4) Analysis  and (5) Conclusion.  You can read more about the specific guidelines in the  International Public Communication - Case Profile

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**  "Standards of academic conduct are set forth in the University's Academic Integrity Code. By
registering, you have acknowledged your awareness of the Academic Integrity Code, and you are obliged to become familiar with your rights and responsibilities as defined by the Code. Violations of the Academic Integrity Code will not be treated lightly, and disciplinary action will be taken should such violations occur. Please see me if you have any questions about the academic violations described in the Code in general or as they relate to particular requirements for this course."

Please read and adhere to the AU academic code of integrity. If you are unsure about being able to personally complete ANY assignment, TALK TO ME. No assignment is worth risking suspension from the university.

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Dr. R.S. Zaharna

International Public Relations
  Working Calendar -- Spring 2005

January 12 -- Introduction



Assignment 1.1     Country Profile
Due:  January 19

Select one COUNTRY that will be your focus for the semester.  When you prepare your profile of your country, focus on the public communication aspects.  You need to think about what all the statistics and raw data about the country means.  Give some of the raw data, but be sure to highlight the public communication implications.  Use the categories listed in the readings of the In-Awareness Model as subheadings and write a one-paragraph narrative for each category.  Please add the following categories that you think are important to your country profile: natural resources, geography profile, historical notes. Please attach a regional map highlighting your selected country as well as a country-specific map.

Use the categories listed in the In-Awareness Approach as subheadings and write a one-paragraph narrative for each category. (This reading available on Zaharna homepage, under category "Research")

Important note:  Try to highlight the possible public communication implications.  For example, if the government is non-democratic, or has multiple political parties -- what might this point mean for an American practitioner who wants to communicate with the public? Another example, if the economy need foreign investment, what might this point mean in terms of the country's communication priorities? Would it be more important for the government to conduct an external or internal communication campaign?

You may wish to make special note of your country's natural resources, geography, or history.  Often these features have important implications that shape how one communicates with the public.


Readings --please read -- and use CONCEPTS / categories

 Zaharna, R.S. (2001)  "An In-awareness Approach to International Public Relations,"
Public Relations Review,  (Winter), 27, pp. 135-148.

Ithator, Agustine (2000) " Understanding the Cultural Patterns of the World--An Imperative in Implementing
 Strategic International PR Programs."  Public Relations Quarterly, (Winter).
available on Blackboard or PROquest

Resources - global

World Bank -http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/regions.htm

United Nations -http://www.un.org/Depts/cartographic/english/index.htm

U.S. State Department (country background notes - includes history, agriculture)

American CIA Facts on File  - http://www.cia.gov./cia/publications/factbook/index.html

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) - http://www.info.usaid.gov/regions/

U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies - http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs



Due:  January 26

This section focuses on how culture shapes the way people perceive and act in their world.  We will look at how anthropologist have talked about how different cultures define and perceive the world differently.  We will also look at how different cultures have their own rules for communicating and how unshared rules can cause communication problems.

Assignment #2:  Cultural Profile-- select one:     Assignment 2.1: Comparative Cross-Cultural Analysis using Kluckhohn
                                                                              Assignment 2.2: Comparative Cross-Cultural Analysis using Cultural Continuum

For the assignments, I will be looking for (a) Implications -- have you highlighted the potential implications that the cultural variables could have for designing and implementing an effective campaign in your country, including specifics such as designing messages, selecting appropriate media channels, or gaining audience trust; (b) Information -- have you provided examples or data from your research to explain your points and included a reference bibliography;  (c) Insights -- have you offered fresh observations and thought deeply about the connections, implications, complications involved; and (d) Cultural sensitivity -- are you sensitive to the audience, respectful of their perspective, dignity, and differences.

Readings --please read  

Miner, Horace. (1956).  "Body Ritual among the Nacirema," American Anthropologist 58 (3), pp. 503-507.
 [available on PROQUEST]

Zaharna, R.S. (working draft 1/28/2000). "Overview:  Florence Kluckhohn Value Orientations."

Zaharna, R.S. (working draft 1/29/2000). "Overview:  Cultural Continuum."

Dahl, Stephan. An Overview of  Intercultural Research. (Middlesex University Business School, UK).

* In-class Lectures

-- Understanding Cultural Differences -- verbal and nonverbal communication / cultural continuums

*  In-class Exercises
possible -
*  Feedback exercise / "My house" exercise
*  Rules of My Culture exercise
*  Curious George
*  Proverbs of the San people
 * Religious symbols 


   Assignment 2.1: Comparative Cross-Cultural Analysis using Kluckhohn -- Select two major ethnic or religious groupings in your region //or compare a dominant socio-cultural group within your country and the dominant American culture. Prepare a comparative analysis of the two ethnic or religious groups within your country or with the dominant American culture using  the Kluckhohn  value-orientations. [pls keep your write up to no more than 5 pages double space, or 3 pages single]  see RESOURCES below

   Assignment 2.2: Comparative Cross-Cultural Analysis using Cultural Continuum -- Select two major ethnic or religious groupings in your region or compare your country's culture and the dominant American culture. Prepare a comparative analysis of the two ethnic or religious groups within your country or with the dominant American culture using any two cultural-continuums.  [pls keep your write up to no more than 5 pages double space, or 3 pages single]  See RESOURCES below

Note:            Remember to highlight the public communication aspects when doing your
                    assignments. For example, when doing your Cultural Profile, think about what you
                    might stress in a message appeal, or which public(s) might be the most influential, or
                    what medium you would rely on to deliver your message, or what creative approach
                    you might use to reinforce your message.  One sentence here and there on  public
                    communication aspects shows me that you are thinking about the information you are
                    gathering and how you might communicate with the people whom your are profiling.

                     If it helps you, you may present your analysis in a chart form or by using subheadings.
                     It is important to use the concepts, define them, and provide a specific example or
                     explanation about how the concept fits with the culture.

RESOURCES  for Assignment 2.1 and 2.2 

 Culture - theory

  Comparative Religions - GENERAL

Cultural Profile Project -[University of Toronto, originally, now part of Canadian Citizenship & Immigration/ each country has its own left side menu once you click to the country]

Academic Info Gateway -- see links for your region

Virtual Library, CHECK -- Regional Studies     -http://vlib.org/

Champlain College - Resources on Religion

Business / Culture guides - database:   globalEDGE        http://globaledge.msu.edu/ibrd/ibrd.asp


An e-community for Africa   clickafrique.com      http://www.clickafrique.com/directory.asp     

Africa- (prepared by African Studies Center, University of Penn. by  Prof. Zuberi -- see individual country pages for links to country-specific resources - gives brief pre- and post-colonial history summary)


VG - Front Porch e-zine

Art & Life in Africa Online -- has data base on 107 African cultures

African cultural resource page -- prepared by the honors class of Prof. Gloria Harper Dickenson, Department of African American Studies at College of New Jersey

Baobab - Studies And Sources in African Visual Culture


Vodun - Call of the Drums - Afro-Caribbean traditional beliefs

Consortium of Latin American studies

Latin America Network Information Center (very extensive)
For individual country resources on religion see - http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/region/religion/

The Latin World (search engine)


Native American (also has links for native cultures in South & Central American)


Asia net - http://www.asianetnews.net/

Virtual library -- Asian studies - (edited by Dr. T. M. Ciolek) --  need to click on your country

Buddhism --  http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVL-Buddhism.html

Confucius - described through meaning of Chinese characters (article prepared by The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Fourth Series is a non-periodic journal and archive of philosophy)

Japan -  Institute of Japanese Culture and Classics --  a research center attached to Kokugakuin University

Tioism Information Resource Page --


Hindu -- Developed by and for Hindu community

Sikhism - by and for community

Islam (prepared by Prof. Alan Godlas, U of Georgia --) - http://www.arches.uga.edu/~godlas/home.html


The Shamash Jewish Internet Consortium, a project of Hebrew College, Internet links to Judaism and Jewish studies

Middle East - (prepared by the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Texas) - http://menic.utexas.edu/menic.html

Islam (prepared by Prof. Alan Godlas, U of Georgia --) - http://www.arches.uga.edu/~godlas/home.html


Due:  February 23

In this session, we will look at how business enterprises and the media adapt their communication for a global audience. Corporations depend on effective communication to increase their bottom line. Reputation translates into profits. The primary strength of corporations, particularly American based ones, is their systematic approach and incorporation of research into the design and implementation of campaigns.

Assignment #3:  Corporate
- please prepare and bring to class ONE assignment

     3.1   International PR case study
     3.2  Corporate web site analysis
     3.3  Cross-cultural Media Analysis


Readings --please read for assignments 

Kristiane Hansted & M.G. Hemanth, "Integrated Marketing Communications: A Valuable Tool in Emerging Markets," Journal of Integrated Communications, 1999-2000, p. 21.

Lerner, Michael (1999). "Building worldwide Web sites" (IBM)

Edelman 2004 International Survey -- "Trust Barometer"  [please browse findings, press release and any additional presentations that interest you]

Business Week -- Global Brand Score Card  -- top 100 global brands

  <>Tools -- please browse or review summary notes (additional concepts for writing your analysis)

Nonprofit Case Study:  Cancer Institute
detailed analysis of how web design used to organize and present information

SUMMARY Notes: M. Lombard & T. Ditton. (1997) At the heart of it all: The concept of Presence. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 3 (2), pp. 1-45. 

presents 6 concepts that promote the "presence" for websites.
1- presence as social richness -- site provides sense of intimacy, immediacy, feeling of contact
2 - presence as realism -- just like the real thing
3 - presence as transportation -- you feel that you are there in the site, and we are there together
4 - presence as immersion -- feel surrounded by experience, eg, video game or Disney world, Pepsi
5 - presence as a social actor within medium -- you get caught by someone on the screen, an anchor talking to you "the audience"
6 - presence as medium social actor -- giving an inanimate object human qualities, eg, Data on Star Trek

SUMMARY Notes:  M. Kent and Maureen Taylor (1998) Building dialogic relationships through the World Wide Web. Public Relations Review. 24 (3), pp. 321.
Authors suggest that the goal of web designers is to create and foster dialogical relationship based on exchange and interaction with publics. Suggest five principles for creating dialogical relationships:
1 - dialogic loop: allow and encourage feedback from the viewer
2 - usefulness of information: make an effort to include information of general value to all publics
3 - generation of return visits: include features that make sites attractive for repeat visitations, update information, change issues, add special forums or commentaries, on-line question and answer sessions
4 - intuitive/ease of interface: visitors should find the sites easy to figure out and navigate
5 - rule of conservation of visitors: be careful about links that can lead the visitors astray

* In-class Lectures
-- Corporate notes
Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict; Batra, Rajeev; Alden, Dana. (2003) How perceived brand globalness creates brand value," Journal of International Business Studies

*  In-class Exercises
possible -
* Body shop
*  videos - Cleo awards, South African commercials, Coca Cola


  Assignment 3.1:   International PR Case Study

Pick an international corporation or case study from a major international PR firm (please see RESOURCES 3.1 for firms) and write a profile of how the firm localized the campaign to fit the country and culture of the product or service.  Highlight the steps discussed by Hansted & Hemanth. Discuss whether the consumer needs, culture and lifestyle has been addressed. Provide a brief background on the product/service. Highlight any special tactics within the pr strategy.  Try to select a campaign that was conducted in your country or region.

 Assignment 3.2: Corporate Website Critique
Select a Multinational Corporation that operates in your region and critique its web site. You may use the seven criteria that c/net-builder.com uses to evaluate web sites or develop additional criteria of your own -- but make sure to explain the concepts you use. Comment on how the site has adapted its website to the culture of the audience. [you may wish to view its home website or US website for comparison]. Examples: Home Depot, Audi, Nike, Nestle's.
See RESOURCES 3.2 on international website design and critique for additional links and tips. Please attach a hard copy of the site's homepage.

Notes: Remember to discuss the public communication aspect. The trend in corporate public relations is to create a corporate image or identity. Identity is created through an overall impression of the page layout and design. Look at the font style. The logo is very important. Horizontal lines tend to promote an image of stability, vertical and especially diagonal lines suggest dynamic energy. Color is critical in setting a mood; think about what emotion the color scheme creates. Look also at what site includes -- does it stress people? company reputation? company achievements? particular product? business philosophy? In doing your critique think about the overall message and identity that the corporation is trying to communicate to an international
through its web site. Touch on any of these public communication aspects in your review. Does the website have any of the elements of presence? What elements in the website contribute to building a dialogic relationship?    Also CHECK statistic links to see how many people in your country actually use the Internet.

  Assignment 3.3:   Cross-cultural Media Analysis 

Select one news medium from your region to compare and contrast to a similar news medium found in the U.S.  You may select from an online English-language newspaper, national magazine, television news broadcast, online news wire, or radio news broadcast from any country in your region (see RESOURCES 3.3  for media sources). Compare the news tone and coverage of issues.  Do you notice any differences in the 'who, what, where, when, why and how' of the coverage? Any difference in focus or subject matter?  Does the definition of "news" appear to be the same for both?  Remember the to discuss the public communication aspect.


Assignment 3.1 -- PR Case Studies

International Public Relations Association  - see "Golden World Awards for Excellence - 2004 Winners" [have to enlarge, only gives names -- http://www.ipra.org/services/2004%20Winners%20list%20for%20press%20release.pdf ]

Public Relations Association of America -- seen "Silver Anvil Awards" - international
[for 2004 awards -- http://www.prsa.org/_Awards/silver/winners2004.asp?ident=sil6.6 ]



RESOURCES for case studies:

Hill & Knowlton -- Global - links to regional websites around the world

Fleischman Hillard International -- has several sites in political, corporate and public awareness campaigns

Porter Novelli International -- also specializes in social marketing

(didn't see international section, but does have special pr areas with case studies and profiles)

Edelman - check their "Global Network"

Ketchum -
has global section, also special "case studies" section, several in Germany

Ogilvy PR
another global leader, recent case in Australia, check under "practices" and "news"

IPREX - partnership of leading public relations firms world wide - check "News" section and "Expertise" for possible leads.

RESOURCES   Assignment 3.2   Corporate Web Site Critique

Resources - picking a corporate web site

Web 100 -- has compiled a list with direct site access to largest U.S. and International corporations on the web (if the link doesn't work, try putting the company's name in Google)

http://metamoney.com/usListIndex.html - The 100 largest US corporations on the web

(check this site for international corporations based in the US. See if you can find the company website for your country. Example -- if you pick Coca Cola as your company, and Brazil is your country. Try to find Coke's website in Brazil to analyze.)

http://metamoney.com/globalListIndex.html - The 100 largest non-US corporations on the web

(This is an interesting site for finding corporations based outside the US. Most of the homepages are in their native language. So, unless you are fluent, you might have problems. Example -- Samsung is based in S. Korea, so the site is in Korean.)

Resource -- How many internet users are there in your country?

NUA (Ireland) - leading research/survey organization of trends and statistics of Internet use
Number of people on line -- by regions and individual countries

International Telecommunication Union -- country profiles/case studies   -- see RIGHT side country list


Resources for analyzing web sites -- may wish to include some of the following concepts or features in your analysis.

U.S. Government - Health & Human Services - (for basic analysis) http://usability.gov/

Lerner, Michael (1999). "Building worldwide Web sites"
(Lerner's piece is hosted on IBM, he is president of Learn the Net.com This brief paper highlights concerns in creating websites for international audiences.
speak visitor's language; localize to culture; be alert to translation problems (machine tranlations; literal translations; humor mistranslations); be sensitive to cultural concerns; account for technical issues (language display; unicode; multilingual maintenance)


RESOURCES - Assignment 3.3  Cross-cultural Media Analysis

http://www.allnewspapers.com/ - All Newspapers - international media directory by country

http://www.ipl.org/div/news/ - the Internet Public Library listing of links to online news
papers by region & country

http://www.etown.edu/vl/radio.html - WWW.Virtual Library - Live International Radio &
Television Broadcasts

International media link:



NewsDirectory.com  searchable database   http://www.ecola.com/
http://comminit.com/- Communication Initiative contains 65 country communication
status summaries

http://allafrica.com/ - Africa media links online

Search Engines -- by country or region

  http://www.searchengineguide.org-Search Engine Guide - international directory
of search engines

Due:  March 3

This section focuses on international public communication campaigns that are concerned with social issues and practices. Whereas corporate communication has the goal of getting the audience to buy a product or service, social communication's aim is to get audiences change attitudes and behavior. Social marketing tends to use a top-down, vertical communication and commercial marketing techniques to "sell" the attitude or behavior. Participatory communication and social-change models tend to use   horizontal communication to activity engage the "stakeholders" to own the communication initiative from the designing a campaign to sustaining its results. The strength of social communication is their high degree of "cultural sensitivity." Because attitudes and behaviors tend to be rooted in culture, communication that is not keenly attuned to the culture fail. In this section, please pay particular attention to the subtle, yet powerful cultural tools that define successful initiatives.  

Assignment #4:  Social - please prepare and bring to class ONE assignment

                 4.1  Social marketing case study
                 4.2  Participatory communication case study
                 4.3  Profile of International campaign

                 4.4  Humanitarian Crisis



Readings --please read before

.Kline-Weinreich, N.  (1998).  "What is Social Marketing"
available online --   http://www.social-marketing.com/whatis.html

MacFadyen, L, Stead, M. and Hastings, G. (1999) Social Marketing: A Synopsis
Centre for Social Marketing

Mintz, J. (1988)  "Social marketing: New weapon in an old struggle."
(design for comprehensive strategy)

Chin Saik Yoon  -- “Participation for Development”

Rockefeller Brothers Fund Report -- Making Waves - Stories of Participatory Communication for Social Change  (with 50 case studies) please read -- "Introduction"

Waisbrod, Silvio -- Family Tree of Theories, Methodologies and Strategies in Development Communication: Convergence & Differences

Edelman, Richard. "NGOs and Corporate Global Citizenship (3/13/2001) [transcript on why NGOs have surged ahead of governments and corporations in 'audience trust and credibility')

[ also see Edelman annual "Trust & Credibility Rating"]

Surfings -- please browse  

The Communication Initiative    


* In-class Lectures
-- NGOs & conference diplomacy
 --NGO - publicity

*  In-class Exercises
 -- hand washing, exercise  
--  video (IADB) "Don't Call Me Street Kid" / Brazil
 video (UNICEF)  "Meena, the Girl Child" / India


Assignment 4.1:  Social Marketing case study
Prepare a profile a case study. Highlight the '4 Ps' of social marketing along with the 3 additional ones we talked about.   Think about the 4 p's of social marketing:  Product -- what was the product? was product physical, service, practice, or idea?  Price -- what was the cost of obtaining the product? was the cost  tangible or intangible? think about any social costs not in terms of what you may think of in America, but in terms of how that culture might view it.  Place -- how was the product delivered to the consumer? any uniquely cultural communication activities that appear particularly suited to the audience?  Promotion -- how was demand created?  do you envision long-term sustainability? what reinforcements are there?
See RESOURCES for finding a case study.
Assignment 4.2:  Participatory Communication case study
Find and profile a case study that appears to have adopted the participatory communication approach. Highlight elements of the approach such as bottom-up communication, horizontal communication, networking, stakeholders, indigenous knowledge, sustainability, cultural sensitivity.

Assignment 4.3:  Profile of An International Initiative
 International organizations routinely publish the findings of major research studies conducted on health, social, or educational issues.  Select an international organization and critique its web site promotion of a current initiative.  Please identify primary and secondary audiences, cultural premise of message appeal, appropriateness of graphic presentation and content focus. Contrast international/global aspect of website with those we looked at for Multinational Corporations.  Please print a hardcopy of the site's homepage.  
Alternatively, -- find a health/education/social case study conducted by an NGO of your choice and profile the case as using a “social marketing” or “participatory” approach.  Highlight elements associated with the approach that you found in the case study.  
Assignment 4.4   Humanitarian Crisis
Unfortunately, man-made and natural disasters occur.  Analyze the case study (to be announced) using the elements of crisis communication.  Assess the message appeal in terms of an American viewer.  Technically, were the critical elements followed?  Was any extra creative components added to enhance the appeal?  Were there any circumstances (i.e., political context, geographical proximity, cultural affinity, etc.) that need to be factored into the appeal?  Were these addressed?


You can chose ANY case study related to your country

best place to start:  http://comminit.com/search.html  

RESOURCES for finding case studies

BEST -- Communication Initiative - wealth of resources on development communication, can check by region or interest

Canada Health -- Social Marketing Network  -- has case studies and resources

Population Services International (PSI) a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the health of low-income people worldwide  (click "Where We Work" for project in different countries)

Commercial Marketing Strategies – case studies on reproductive health

Porter Novelli – has case studies world wide – may have to do additional research to get details

International Development Network - Information Resources for Sustainable Development

Johns Hopkins University, Program in Health Communication – case studies with link to more detailed information on cases

 Tools of Change (Canada) -- case studies and methodology

Social Change (Australia) -- focuses on the role of media in social change

id2  Development Research reporting service, a selection of the latest and best UK-based development research -- international case studies on wide range of areas.

IRIN News org.  UN office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs -- case studies from around globe, presented as short news items -- extensive on Central Asia
Fostering Sustainable Development (environmental - US, Europe, Australia) maintained by Prof. Doug McKenzie resources on case studies, vg chapters on aspects of social marketing - commitment, communication, etc.

Health Systems Research, Inc -- primarily social marketing research, including case studies, in the U.S.  http://www.hsrnet.com/sitemap.htm

Center for Development Communication (possible links for European-based partnerships)  http://www.cendevcom.org/partners.html

Inter-Development Bank  (Central and South American projects, all fields)

  Italy -- Marketing Sociale -- web site for social marketing in Italy  (in Italian)


International Agencies 

United Nations - list of agencies -  http://www.unsystem.org/

European Union  http://www.europa.eu.int/
Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N.  http://www.fao.org/
International Court of Justice   http://www.icj-cij.org/
International Labor Organization 
North Atlantic Treaty Organizations  http://www.nato.int/
Organization for Economic Development  http://www.oecd.org/
U.N. Children's Fund -  http://www.unicef.org/
U.N. Development Program -  http://www.undp.org/
U.N. Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization -  http://www.unesco.org/
U.N. Population Fund -    http://www.unfpa.org/
World Bank -  http://www.worldbank.org/
World Trade Organization -  http://www.wto.org/

Sample Case Studies

Learning What You Don't Know: Training Journalists in Armenia
by Leah Kohlenberg

Germany (University of Kiel/Germany -- Nordlicht Campaign to reduce traffic congestion)
available online     http://www.nordlicht.uni-kiel.de/pube.htm

Latin America - "Don't Call Me Street Kid" - campaign to foster awareness of street kids developed by Inter-America Development Bank, (IADB)
available online       http://www.iadb.org/exr/spe/kidscampaign/


This section focuses on international public communication that have a political agenda or that seek to promote a particular political ideology.  To keep the process orderly, we will focus on government-sponsored communication to foreign and domestic publics.  Since the 9/11 attacks in America, public diplomacy has received increasing significance. We will look at America's recent public diplomacy initiatives to "win the hearts and minds" around the globe. Then, we will switch perspectives and look at how other nations are trying to do the same, particularly in America. We will look at the specific and identifiable communication features that distinguish public diplomacy from propaganda. We will look at how governments try to rally their own domestic publics and how that impacts their communication with foreign audiences.  The strength of political communication is ideological complexity. How do you make an abstract political ideology concrete?  How do you promote your own national image and philosophy without triggering foreign publics to defend their image and philosophy? In this section, please pay particular attention to the range of communication strategies and tactics that governments employ -- and how sensitive they are to the cultural differences between their domestic and foreign audiences.   

Assignment #5:  Political  - please prepare and bring to class ONE assignment        MARCH 23

                  5.1  Public diplomacy - Comparative Analysis
                  5.2  Public Affairs - International Cases
                  5.3  Information Warfare & Propaganda

Readings --please read before

Smith, Pamela (2000) "What is public diplomacy," Address before the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomacy, Malta.

Ross, Christopher (2003) Pillars of Public Diplomacy, Harvard Review, August 2003.

van Ham, Peter. (2001). The rise of the brand state:  The postmodern politics of image and reputation. Foreign Affairs 80(5), p.2 [AU library data base: JSTOR, CIAS, PROquest]

Zaharna, RS (2004) ”From Propaganda to Public Diplomacy in an Information Age,” in Nancy Snow and Yahya Kamalipour (eds.) War, Media, and Propaganda:  A Global Perspective (New York: Rowman & Littlefield ).

Institute of Propaganda, (note propaganda techniques)

 Surfings -- please browse these sites

University of Kent (U.K.) Propaganda links

USIA Alumni Association & The Public Diplomacy Foundation - Public Diplomacy Web Site --

Mediterranean Academy of Diplomacy - Diplo Foundation 

* In-class Lectures

- public diplomacy or propaganda:  analyzing communication techniques
- net diplomacy -- US Institute of Peace

*  In-class Exercises
 -- video:  Keen "Faces of the Enemy"
--  video:  US Army (1940) "Know Your Enemy"


  Assignment 5.1:  Public Diplomacy -- Comparative Analysis of Websites

Please do two separate web site critiques.  The first web site should be the American government's web site of the American embassy in your particular country.  You can find the link for all U.S. embassies on the State Department link below.  The second web site should be the corresponding web site of your country's embassy in Washington or the U.S.  In your analysis, please point out how the web site reflects the culture and political goals of the sponsoring government.  Try to assess how effective the American government is speaking to the foreign audience.  Do you think the American embassy web site is suitable for the audience in your country? (think about country and cultural profile).  Aside from language-based elements, are there any special features that are specifically targeted to the native audience or that resonate with their cultural themes? Conversely, talk about how effective the foreign government's web site is spelling out its goals to an American audience. Please make sure to comment on any specific cultural features of the particular web sites.

****Please attach a hard copy of homepage – with URL address – we will view them together in class.

For links to American embassies and consulates:  see U.S. Department of State - Public Diplomacy

For links to foreign embassies and consulates in the U.S., see http://www.embassy.org

For global directory of embassies:  see http://www.embassyworld.com

  Assignment 5.2:  Public Affairs or Propaganda

Select one the online exhibits featured by the Institute of Social History in the Netherlands.  Prepare a 2 1/2 page analysis on the content, themes, overall assessment.   Please try to pick an exhibit related to your region.

Institute of Social History. (Amsterdam )  Online Exhibits: http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/index.html

1.  "The Chairman Smiles:  Posters from Cuba," Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/chairman/cubintro.html

2.  "The Chairman Smiles:  Posters from China," Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/chairman/chnintro.html

3.  "The Chairman Smiles:  Posters from the former Soviet Union," Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/chairman/sovintro.html

4.   "Chinese Propaganda Posters." Prepared by Stephan Landsberger, Institute of Social History, Amsterdam. http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/

5.  U.S. National Archives and Records Administration has an online exhibit of WWII posters that were designed to mobilize the American public.  Please visit their exhibit, "Powers of Persuasion"

Assignment 5.3:  Information Warfare and Propaganda

Please analyze U.S. warfare leaflets dropped in Afghanistan or Iraq. For your analysis, please read "Warfare Leaflets" by psyops specialist. Using the categories from the article, analyze US leaflets dropped in Afghanistan or Iraq. Speak to the use of color, graphics, context, layout.  USE concepts from readings.  Please attach hard copy of leaflet. Do at least 3 leaflets

The Propaganda War and the War Against Terrorism -- slide presentation:  "The Role of Propaganda"
Prof. Philip M. Taylor (Institute of Communication Studies, Leeds Univ., U.K.)

US Leaflets dropped in Iraq  (critique at least 3 leaflets)

The Information Warfare Site /UK (explore site)

US Leaflets dropped in Afghanistan- for review or comparison only / do not critique for assignment

(Prof. Taylor, site above has sample leaflets, below are some links with clearer copies.)

US Defense Dept - Leaflet on food package & cluster bombs
Arabic version -  http://www.defenselink.mil/photos/Oct2001/0110025-D-9085M-002.html

US Dod leaflets Afghan collection - IWS.org.uk - Information Warfare Site (U.K.)

US DoD - Farsi

 Resources -- Information Warfare

Warfare Leaflets

Interview Maj. Ed Rouse (Psychological Operations Group) by freeserve.com   [gives overview of US successes with Psyops)

Brief History of Psychological Operations (Psyops)

University of Kent (U.K.) Propaganda links

Aukland - "An Appraisal of Gulf War Propaganda"
The Psywar Society



Hiebert, R. E. (1991). "Public Relations a Weapon of Modern Warfare," Public Relations Review 17 (2), pp. 107-116.

Manheim, Jarol.  (1994). "Image Management:  The Real 'Smart Weapon' of the Gulf War," in Strategic Public Diplomacy and American Foreign Policy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp, 39-60

Reese, S. & Buckalew, B. (1995)."The militarism of local television:  The routine framing of the Persian Gulf War," Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12, pp. 40-59.

Keen, S.  (1994)  Faces of the Enemy, in G. Weaver (ed.) Culture, Communication & Conflict: Readings in International Relations.  NY: Ginn Press, pp. 413-416.



Due:  April 6  please see Article Review Guidelines

Choose an article related to (a) your case study; (b) communication aspect of your region; OR (c) your selected approach.

The critique should be approximately 2 1/2 pages and include (a) an brief overview of what the article was about; (b) a detailed summary of major findings or points; and (c) your assessment of the content of the article.

*** BE Sure to attach a copy of the journal article with your critique.

** Undergraduates - 1 Article review
** Graduates - 2 Article reviews



Assignment:  Music

Show & tell feature presentation.  Collect a sampling of music from your country to share with the class. Class presentation limited to 5 minutes.  Discuss how the music reflects the life style of the particular audience. (Check Internet or Library non-print section).

Assignment:  Proverbs & Religion

Use Search Strategies to find proverbs from your country of study.  Collect at least 10 proverbs.  Discuss how proverbs relate to prominent features in the culture or life style of the people. Hypothesize on you might adapt campaign strategy around a particular proverb.  Prepare handout of proverbs to share with class.


African music archives -  http://ntama.uni-mainz.de/~ama/

Example of African proverbs http://www.namesite.com/



 National Symbols    
Secure an English-language translation of the National Anthem and full-colored flag of the country you are studying.  Prepare two page write up on the history of the national anthem and flag.

12) Final paper due

Please see Case Study Guidelines.



Other References

International Public Relations - Global Overview

Banks, S.P. (1995). "Culture, Diversity, and Public Relations," in Multicultural Public Relations: A Social-Interpretive Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 1-22.

Botan, C. (1992). "International Public Relations: Critique and Reformulation," Public Relations Review, 18 (2), pp. 149-159.

Grunig, J., Grunig, L., Sriramesh, K., Huang, Y., & Lyra, A. (1995). "Models of Public Relations in an International Setting," Journal of Public Relations Research 7 (3), pp. 163-186.

Reed, J. (1989). "International Media Relations: Avoid Self-Blinding," Public Relations Quarterly (Summer), pp. 12-15.

Anderson, G. (1990). "A Global Look at Public Relations," in W. Canton (ed.), Experts in Action. NY: Longman.

Aydin, N., Terpstra, V. & Yaprak, A. (1984)."The American challenge in international advertising," Journal of Advertising (13), pp. 49-59.

Crespy, C. (1986). "Global marketing is the new public relations challenge," Public Relations Quarterly (Summer), pp.5-8.

Farinelli, J. (1990). "Needed: A New U.S. Perspective on Global Public Relations," Public Relations Journal (November), pp.18-19, 42.

Fitzpatrick, K & Whillock, R. (1993). "Assessing the impact of globalization on U.S. public relations," Public Relations Review 19 (Winter), pp. 315-325.

Howard, C. & Mathews, W. (1986). "Global Marketing: Stop, Look, and Listen," Public Relations Quarterly, (Summer), pp.10-11.

Sharpe, M. L. (1992). "The Impact of Social and Cultural Conditioning on Global Public Relations," Public Relations Review 18 (2), pp. 103-107.

Stanton, E. (1991) "PR's Future is Here: Worldwide, Integrated Communications," Public Relations Quarterly, (Spring), pp. 46-47.

Political Structure

Culbertson, H. M., Jeffers, D.W., Stone, D. B., and Terrel, M. (1993). "The Political Context in Public Relations: Getting Things Done," in Social, Political and Economic Contexts in Public Relations: Theory & Cases. (Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum), pp. 81-101.

Elder, C. D. & Cobb, R.W. (1983). "Social Functions of Political Symbols (American)" in  The Political Uses of Symbols. (New York: Longman), pp. 113-141.

Hiebert, R. E. (1991). "Public Relations a Weapon of Modern Warfare," Public Relations
Review 17 (2), pp. 107-116.

Cutlip, S. (1987). "Pioneering public relations for foreign governments," Public Relations Review, (Spring), pp. 13-34.

Kunczik, M. Images of Nations and International Public Relations.New York: Erlbaum, 1996.

Mac Arthur, J. (1992). Second front: Censorship and propaganda in the Gulf war. Berkeley:University of California Press.

Manheim, J. (1994). Strategic public diplomacy & American foreign policy. New YorkOxford University Press.

Art & Visual Component

Bower, R. & Sharp, L. (1956). "The use of art in international communication: A case study," Public Opinion Quarterly, (Spring), pp. 221-229.

Tinic, S.A. (1997). "United Colors and United Meanings: Benetton and the Commodification of
Social Issues," Journal of Communication 47 (3), pp. 3-25.

Wallis, B. (1991). "Selling Nations," Art in America (September), pp. 85-91.

Balfe, J. (1987). "Artworks as symbols in international politics," International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, (Winter), pp. 195-217.


Roth, N.L., Hunt, T., Stavropoulos, M. & Babik, K. (1996). "Can't We all Just Get Along: Cultural Variables in Codes of Ethics," Public Relations Review 22(2), pp. 151-161.

Dyck, E. J. & Coldevin, G. (1992). "Using Positive vs. Negative Photographs for Third-World Fund Raising," Journalism Quarterly 69 (3), pp. 572-579.

Kruckeberg, D. (1996). "A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East." Public Relations Review 22 (2), pp. 181-189.

Pinsdorf, M. K. (1991). "Flying the Different Skies: How Cultures Respond to Airline
Disasters," Public Relations Review 17 (1), pp. 37-56.

Tinic, S.A. (1997). "United Colors and United Meanings: Benetton and the Commodification of
Social Issues," Journal of Communication 47 (3), pp. 3-25.

O'Brien, A. (1980). "Public Relations of Anti-Stereotype Television Spots," Public Relations Review 6 (3), pp. 14-21.


Hall, E. T. & Hall, M.R. (1990). "Key Concepts: Underlying Structures of Culture," in Understanding Cultural Differences. (Chicago: Intercultural Press), pp. 1-28.

Stewart, E. C. (1972). "American Assumptions and Values," in American Cultural Patterns. (Chicago: Intercultural Press), pp. 31-78.

Triandis, H.C., Brislin, R., & Hui, C. H. (1988). "Cross-Cultural Training Across the Individualism-Collectivism Divide," International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, pp. 269-288.

Kluckhohn, F. & Strodtbeck, R. (1961).Variations in Value Orientations. Evanston, IL: Row Peterson.


Pratt, C. & Ugboajah, F. (1985)."Social Responsibility: A Comparison of Nigerian Public Relations with Canadian and U.S. Public Relations," International Public Relations Review (9), pp.22-29.

Pratt, C. (1985). "Public Relations in the Third World: The African Context," Public Relations Journal, 41 (February), pp.11-12, 15-16.

Albritton, R. & Manheim, J. (1983)."News of Rhodesia: The impact of a PR campaign,"
Journalism Quarterly 60 (1983), pp. 622-628.

Sullivan, P. A. (1993). "Significantion and African American Rhetoric: A Case Study of Jesse Jackson's 'Common Ground and Common Sense' Speech," Communication Quarterly, 41 (1), pp. 1-15.


Chen, G. & Chung, J. (1994). "The Impact of Confuciansim on Organizational Communication," Communication Quarterly, 42 (2), pp. 93-103.

Bhimani, R. (1986). "Status of PR in India: The image of a peacock and the Status of an Ostrich," International Public Relations Review, 10 (2), pp. 19-23.

Carr, S. (1989, January). "How to Deal with the Japanese Media," Public Relations Journal,
(January), pp. 27-28.

Choate, P. (1990). Agents of influenceNew York: Alfred Knopf.

Culbertson, H. (1987). "Public relations -- A big part of the 1986 Filipino story," Public
Relations Quarterly (Summer), pp. 14-16.

DiBenedetto, A., Tamate, M. & Chandran, R. (1992). "Developing creative advertising strategy for the Japanese marketplace," Journal of Advertising Research 32 (1), pp. 39-48.

Hong, J., Muderisoglu, A. & Zinkhan, G. (1987)."Cultural differences and advertising expression: A comparative content analysis of Japanese and US magazine advertising," Journal of Advertising (16), pp.55-68.

Madden, C., Caballero, M. & Matsukubo, S. (1986). "Analysis of information content in U.S. and Japanese magazine advertising," Journal of Advertising (15), pp. 38-45.

Mueller, B. (1992). "Standardization vs. Specialization: An Examination of Westernization in Japanese Advertising," Journal of Advertising Research (January/February), pp. 15-23.

Rice, M. & Lu, Z. (1988)."A content analysis of Chinese magazine advertisements," Journal of Advertising (17), pp. 43-48.


Abhhijit Biswas, Janeen Olsen, and Valerie Carrrlet, "A comparison of print advertisements from the United States and France," Journal of Advertising 21 (1992), pp. 73-81.

Heibert, R. (1992). "Global Public Relations in a Post-Communist World: A New Model," Public Relations Review, 18 (2), pp. 117-126.

Haung, M. & Koppang, H. (1997). "Lobbying and Public Relations in a European Context,"
Public Relations Review 23 (3), pp. 233-247.

Weinberger, M. & Spotts, H. (1989)."Humor in U.S. versus U.K. TV commercials: A comparison," Journal of Advertising, (18), pp. 39-44.

Latin America

Ferber, R. (1986). "The Practice of Public Relations in Latin America," in W. Canton, (ed.),
Experts in Action. NY: Longman.

*Valencia, H. (Dec 1983/Jan 1984). "Point of View: Avoiding Hispanic Market Blunders," Journal of Advertising Research, 23, pp. 19-22.

Tansey, R., Hyman, M. & Zinkhan, G. (1990). "Cultural themes in Brazilian and US auto ad: A cross-cultural comparison," Journal of Advertising (19), pp.30-39.

Middle East

Al-Enad, A. (1992). "Values of public relations conduct in Saudi Arabia," Public Relations Review, 18 (Summer), pp. 213-222.

Al-Enad, A. (1990, Summer).Public Relations Role in Developing Countries. Public Relations Quarterly, 35(2), pp. 24-26.

Zaharna, R. (1996). "Managing Cross-Cultural Challenges: A Pre-K Lesson for Training in the Gaza Strip," Journal of Management Development 15 (5), pp.80-92.


Reference Sources

Univ of California -- one page access to major search engines, plus style guide for searches

The Internet Library, sponored by the School of Information, University of Michigan
(online texts, search tutorials, and references)

BUBL  Link (U.K.)

Academic Info - scholarly, university level research information

Infomine   - scholarly , university level

Foreign Affairs Online

Public Relations Winners of 2001 - by Fraiser Seitel (O'Dweyer's PR Daily, Jan. 7, 2002)

http://www.fiu.edu/~escotet/index0.html-  Escotet (International education development)


Ferber, R.  (1986).  "The Practice of Public Relations in Latin America," in W. Canton, (ed.), Experts in Action.  NY: Longman.

Chen, N. (1998) "Public Relations in China: Introduction & Development of the Field,"  in N. Chen & H. Culbertson (eds.) International Public Relations. Hillsdale, NJ: Larence Erlbaum.

Heibert, R. (1992).  "Global Public Relations in a Post-Communist World: A New Model," Public Relations Review, 18 (2), pp. 117-126.

Heibert, R. E. (1992).  "Public Relations and Mass Communication in Eastern Europe," Public Relations Review, 18 (2), pp. 177-187.

Nessmann, K. (1995) "Public Relations in Europe: A Comparison with the U.S.," Public Relations Review 21 (2), pp. 151-160.

Sharpe, M. & Simoes, R. (1996). "Public Relations Performance in South & Central America" (Brazil) in  N. Chen & H. Culbertson (eds.) International Public Relations. Hillsdale, NJ: Larence Erlbaum.

Sriramish, K. (1992) "Societal Culture and Public Relations: Ethnographic Evidence from India," Public Relations Review, 18 (2), pp. 201-211.

van Reil, C.B. (1992).  "Corporate Communication in European Financial Institutions," Public Relations Review 18 (2), pp. 161-175.

International Advertising

Dilenschneider, R. L. (1991).  "Marketing Communciations in a Post-Advertising Era," Public Relations Review, 17 (3), pp. 227-236.

Mueller, B. (1992). "Standardization vs. Specialization: An Examination of Westernization in Japanese Advertising," Journal of Advertising Research (January/February), pp. 15-23.

Klewes, Joachin.  (1998) "The Future of PR is Starting Today."
(Klewes is with Edelman Public Relations Worldwide.  He discusses new pr trends that are emerging because of the communication technology.)
available on Orbicom -- UNESCO Chairs in Communication

Additional Resources -- Cultural Aspects of Web Design

Asia internet marketing firm  http://www.theblackbox.com/

Africa.com -- African internet design company --http://africa.com/


    El Sitio (cultural must see)  http://www.elsitio.com/elsitio/global/home_gl.html

Starmedia (enter "Pais" or "country" then go - vamos!) http://cgi.starmedia.com/

    Terra Networks http://www.terra.es/

Zona Finaciera (etrade for stock in the Americas -- for "Idiom" put "English")

Additional References -- Web Design (Scholarly analysis)
** Lombard, M. & Ditton, T. (1997).  "At the Heart of it All:  The concept of presence," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 3 (2), pp. 1-45.

Dreze, X. & Zufryden, F.  (1997).  "Testing web site design and promotional content," Journal of Advertising Research (April/March), pp. 77-91.

Berthon, B., Pitt, L. & Watson, R. (1996)."The World Wide Web as an Advertising Medium:  Toward an understanding of conversion effeciency" Journal of Advertising Research (January/February), pp. 43-53.

Rajani, R. & Rosenberg, D.  (1999).  "Usable? . . . Or not?  Factors Affecting the USability of Web Sites," Computer Mediated Communication, pp. 1-6

Donovan, R. & Paterson, D. (1999)  "Targeting Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence:  Western Australia's Freedom From Fear Campaign," Paper presented at the 5th Annual Innovations in Social Marketing Conference, Montreal, Canada, July 18-20, 1999.
available online -- http://www.commerce.ubc.ca/ism/ism-prog.htm#Donovan

McKee, Neill. (1998) "Lessons for communicators," in Social Mobilization and Social Marketing in Developing Communities.Southbound Publishers.


Health Canada (1999).  "The Online Social Marketing Tutorial" a component of the Social Marketing Network, Health Canada.
available online:  http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/socialmarketing/tutorial/

Waring, Ross.  (1995).  "Marketing Cultural Change." Recovery 6 (1).
available online:  http://www.icbc.bc.ca/oldrecover/Volume6/Number1/MarketingCulturalChange/

Braus, Patricia. (November 1995). "Selling Good Behavior."American Demographics.
available online:   http://www.demographics.com/publications/AD/95_ad/9511_ad/ad831.htm

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (June 1997)  "Communicating Appropriately with Asian and Pacific Islander Audiences." National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.
available online -- www.health.org/pubs/makepub/tab16.htm

 http://www.idrc.ca/books/reports/     -  the Canadian International Development Research Centre
                                                                    case studies sorted by region,


Canadian Bureau for International Education, CIDA Project Summaries -- http://www.cbie.ca/oldcida/cida-ps.html

Participatory Communication Research Section, Jan Servaes, Catholic University of Brussels --

Latin America -- focuses on environmental issues and sustainable development in the Americas, compiled by Ron Mader -- http://www2.planeta.com/mader/ecotravel/sustain.html


Yoon, Chin (1996) "Participatory Communication for Development," in Guy Bessette & C.V. Rajasunderam (eds.), Participatory Development Communication:  A West African Agenda.IDRC.available online -- http://www.idrc.ca/books/focus/802/chin.html

Bessette, G. (1996) "Development communication in West and Central Africa," in Guy Bessette & C.V. Rajasunderam (eds.), Participatory Development Communication:  A West African Agenda.IDRC.
available online -- http://www.idrc.ca/books/focus/802/bessette.html

Israel, A.(1997)  A Guide for the Perplexed:  Institutional Aspects of Social Programs.  Sustainable Development Department, The Inter-American Development Bank (Publication no. 3/97, SOC-104, E)    available online -- http://www.iadb.org/sds/
(IADB>Sustainable Development>Publications>Social Development)

Guide:  A Toolkit for Early Childhood Care and Development (website developed by the Inter-Development Bank) http://www.iadb.org/sds/soc/eccd/1START.html

Taylor, M. & Kent, M. (1999)  "Challenging assumptions of international public relations:  When government is the most important public," Public Relations Review 25 (Summer), pp. 131-144.

Dyck, E. J. & Coldevin, G. (1992). "Using Positive vs. Negative Photographs for Third-World Fund Raising," Journalism Quarterly 69 (3), pp. 572-579.

African perspective of information campaigns (cultural studies)

Nicholas Burns, State Department Spokesman. "The Importance of Public Diplomacy."  Speech delivered on Foreign Service Day, Washington, D.C.,May 9, 1997. Released by the Office of the Spokesman, U.S. Department of State.May 12, 1997.
last know location:   http://www.state.gov/www/policy_remarks/970509.burns.html

anheim, J. (1994).  "Coming to America:  Head-of-State Visits as Public Diplomacy," in Strategic Public Diplomacy & American Foreign Policy.  NY: Oxford Press, pp. 61-81.

 China's Public Relations Strategy on Tibet: Classified Documents from the Beijing Propaganda Conference
 From: Kelsang D. Aukatsang, International Campaign for Tibet   (ict@peacenet.org)

K. McCauley, PR Missing in Action (Dec. 19, 2001, O'Dweyer) -- graphics from US State Dept