“Facing the Past” (Truth Commissions, Tribunals, Psychological issues, etc.)

A Working Bibliography


Compiled by Maryanne Yerkes, Julie Mertus, Eric Gordy and Maia Carter

(please send suggested additions to: mertus@american.edu)



Ackermann, A., “Reconciliation as a Peace-Building Process in Postwar Europe: The Franco-German Case” in Peace & Change, vol. 19, no.3, July, 1994, pp. 229-250.


Akhavan, Payam. “Justice in the Hague, peace in the former Yugoslavia? A commentary on the UN War Crimes Tribunal” Human Rights Quarterly 20(4):737-816, Nov. 1998.


Allen, Jonathan. "Balancing Justice and Social Unity: political theory and the idea of a truth and reconciliation commission," University of Toronto Law Journal 49, 3, 1999. pp. 315-353.


Alonzo-Maizlish, D. “In whole or in part: Group rights, the intent element of genocide, and the ‘quantitative criterion’” New York University Law Review 77 (5): 1369-1403, November 2002.

Amery, Jean, At the Mind’s Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and its Realities, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.

Anderson, David C. “Painful Truth, Healing Truth: Commissions Help Wounded Societies Build a Future by Confronting the Past” Ford Foundation Report Spring 2000 16-21.

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Arendt, Hannah Eichmann in Jerusalem. A Raport on the Banality of Evil, 1963, trad. it. La banalità del male. Eichmann a Gerusalemme, Milano, Feltrinelli, 1964.

Arnson, Cynthia J., Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America, Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1999.

Asmal, Kader; Asmal, Louise; Suresh, Robert. Reconciliation Through Truth. Cape Town: David Phillip, 1996.

Aspen Institute, State Crimes: Punishment or Pardon New York: Aspen Institute, 1989.

Augsburger, David W. Helping People Forgive, Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Avruch, Kevin, Culture & Conflict Resolution, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998.

Ball, Howard. Prosecuting War Crimes and Genocide. The Twentieth-century Experience, Lawrence, Kansas, University Press of Kansas, 1999.

Bantekas, Ilias. “The Contemporary Law of Superior Responsibility,” American Journal of International Law, v. 93 n. 3, July 1999.

Barkan, Elazar, The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices , W.W. Norton & Co., 2000.

Bass, Gary Jonathan, Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Becker, Elizabeth. When the War Was Over: The Voices of Cambodia’s Revolution and Its People, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1986.

Beristain, Carlos Martin, “The Value of Memory” in Forced Migration Review, 2, 1998.

Bhagava and Kiss. In Rotberg, Robert I. and Dennis Thompson. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Bianchi, Andrea. “Individual Accountability for Crimes against Humanity: Reckoning with the Past, Thinking of the Future” SAIS Review 19(2), Summer-Fall 1999.

Black, Christopher. “The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: Impartial?” Mediterranean Quarterly 11, no. 2, pp. 29-40, 2000.

Boelaert-Suominen, Sonja. “The Yugoslavia Tribunal and the Common Core of Humanitarian Law Applicable to all Armed Conflicts” Leiden Journal of International Law 13, no.3, pp. 619-653, 2000.

Boraine, Alex, Levy, Janet and Scheffer, Ronel. Dealing With the Past: Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Cape Town: IDASA, 1994.

Boraine, Alex A. A Country Unmasked. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Borneman, J., Settling Accounts: Violence, Justice, and Accountability in Post-socialist Europe, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Brahona de Brito, Alexandra, (ed.), Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies, Oxford University Press, 2001.

Braun, Jerome (ed.) Social Pathology in Comparative Perspective: The Nature and Psychology of Civil Society, Westport: Praeger, 1995.

Brooks, Roy L., When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy Over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice, New York: New York University Press, 1999.


Buruma, Ian, The wages of guilt : memories of war in Germany and Japan, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1994.

Charny, Israel W. (ed.), Toward the Understanding and Prevention of Genocide: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide, Boulder, CO, London, Westview Press, 1984.

Chorover, Stephen L. From Genesis to Genocide: The Meaning of Human Nature and the Power of Behavior Control, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1979.

Cibelli, Kristin and Tamy Guberek, Justice Unknown, Justice Unsatisfied? Bosnian NGOs Speak about the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, A project of the Education and Public Inquiry and International Citizenship at Tufts University.

Cibelli, Kristen. “Upholding human rights in former Yugoslavia,” Talk to COPRED Conference, Siena College, Loudonville, NY, April 8-10, 1999.

Citizens Alternative Parliament, Okruglisto: Istinai Pomirenje, transcript from a round table on the Bosnian Truth and Reconciliation Commission, organized by the Forum of Tuzla Citizens, Tuzla, Bosnia: PrintCom Tuzla, 2000.

Cobban, Helena. "The Legacies of Collective Violence: The Rwandan genocide and the limits of law," Boston Review. April/May 2002.

Cohen, David. “Beyond Nuremberg: Individual Responsibility for War Crimes”, in Hesse, Carla and Robert Post (eds.) Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999, pp. 53-92.

Consedine, J., Restorative Justice: Healing the Effects of Crime, Lyttelton, New Zealand: Ploughshares, 1995.


Cooper, Belinda, War Crimes: The Legacy of Nuremberg” New York: TV Books, 1999.


Coser, Lewis A. “The Revival of the Sociology of Culture: The Case of Collective Memory”, in Sociological Forum, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1992, pp. 365- 373.


Cushman, Thomas, and Stjepan G. Mestrovic (eds.), This time we knew: Western responses to genocide in Bosnia, New York and London, New York University Press, 1996.

Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The Holocaust and the Historians, Cambridge (Ma.), Harvard University Press, 1981.

De Ridder, Trudy. "The Trauma of Testifying" in Track Two: Constructive Approaches to Community and Political Conflict Vol. 5, no. 3&4, 12/1997.

Digeser, Peter. Political Forgiveness. Cornell: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Dimitrijevic, Vogin. (ed.), Ljudska prava u Jugoslaviji 1999, Belgrade: Beogradski centar za ljudska prava, 2000.

Dobkowski, Michael N., and Isidor Wallimann, Genocide and the Modern Age: Etiology and Case Studies of Mass Death, Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1987.

Drakulic,  Slavenka. The Balkan express: Fragments from the other side of war, trad. it. Balkan express, Milano, Il Saggiatore, 1996.

Drumtra, J., Life after Death: Suspicion and Reintegration in Post-Genocide Rwanda. U.S. Committee for Refugees, Washington, D.C., February 1998.


Dunne, Tim and Daniela Kroslak, “Genocide: Knowing What It Is That We Want to Remember, or Forget, or Forgive”, in The International Journal of Human Rights: Special Issue: The Kosovo Tragedy: The Human Rights Dimensions, Vol. 4, Nos. ¾, Autumn/Winter 2000, pp. 27-46.

Edelstein, Jillian with Pumla Godbodo-Madikizela, Truth and Lies: Stories from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, New Press, 2002.

Euben, J. Peter. The Tragedy of Political Theory: The Road Not Taken. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Farer, Tom. “Restraining the Barbarians: Can International Criminal Law Help?” Human Rights Quarterly 22(1), February 2000.

Feher, Michel. "Terms of Reconciliation." In Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia. New York, Zone Books, 1999. pp. 325-338.

Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide: National Responses and Jewish Victimization during the Holocaust, New York, Free Press, 1979.

Fischer, Michael M. J., “Ethnicity and the Post-Modern Arts of Memory”, in James Clifford and George E. Marcas (eds.) Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Fitzgerald, Kate. “Problems of prosecution and adjudication of rape and other sexual assaults under international law” European Journal of International Law 8 (4): 638-663, 1997.

Fletcher, Laurel. “Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation” Human Rights Quarterly 24 (3), August 2002.

Fraser, Nancy. Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the “Postsocialist” Condition, Routledge, 1997.

Friedlander, Saul. Memory, History, and the Extermination of the Jews of Europe, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1993.

Friedlander, Saul (ed.), Probing the limits of representation : Nazism and the "final solution”, Papers from the conference on "Nazism and the 'Final Solution': Probing the Limits of Representation", held at the University of California, Los Angeles, on Apr. 26-29, 1990, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. 

Galaway, Burt and Joe Hudson ed. Restorative Justice: International Perspectives. Willow Tree, 1996.

Gojkovic, Drinka. "Buducnost u trougao," Rec, v. 57 n. 2.

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah, Hitler's willing executioners : ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, 1st Vintage books ed., New York: Vintage Books, 1997.


Goldman, Francisco, “In Guatemala, All is Forgotten,” New York Times, December 23, 1996, op-ed.


Goldstone, Richard J., “Ethnic Reconciliation Needs the Help of a Truth Commission,” in International Herald Tribune, October 24-25, 1998.


Gordy, Eric, “Accounting for a Violent Past, by Means Other than Legal.” Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies , 2003 (forthcoming)


Gordy, Eric, “What Does it Mean to Break With the Past?,” in Dz. Sokolovic, C. Wieland and F. Bieber (eds.), Multiethnic Democracies in Southeastern Europe, 2003 (forthcoming)


Gordy, Eric "Postwar Guilt and Responsibility in Serbia: The Effort to Confront It and the Effort to Avoid It," in S.P. Ramet and V. Pavlakovic (eds.), Serbia Since 1989: From Milosevic to Kostunica, 2003 (forthcoming)


Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish To Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families: Stories From Rwanda, Paperback, 1999.


Stjepan Gredelj, “Vrednosno utemeljenje blokirane transformacije srpskog drustva,” in Mladen Lazic (ed.), Racji hod: Srbija u transformacijskim procesima, Belgrade: Filip Visnjic, 2000.

Grosser, Alfred. Le Crime et la Mémoire, Paris, Flammarion, 1989.

Gutman, Israel (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, New York: Macmillan, 1990.

Halbwachs, Maurice (ed.), On Collective Memory, edited, translated, and with an introduction by Lewis A. Coser, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.


Hamber, Brandon  (1995) “Dealing with the Past and the Psychology of Reconciliation: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a Psychological Perspective,” paper presented at the International Symposium on the Contributions of Psychology to Peace, June 27.

Hampton, Jean. "The retributive idea." In J. Murphy and J. Hampton, (eds.) Forgiveness and Mercy. Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 111-162.

Harris, Marshall Freeman, R. Bruce Hitchner, Michael P. Scharf, Paul R. Williams, and Diane F. Orentlicher, Making Justice Work: The Report of the Century Foundation/Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Apprehending Indicted War Criminals, New York: The Century Foundation Press, 1998.

Hartman, Geoffrey H. (ed.) Holocaust Remembrance: The Shapes of Memory, Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.

Hayner, Priscilla B., Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity, London, England: Routledge, 2001.


Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, Potential For Changes, Belgrade, Serbia: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, 2000.


Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, Serbian Elite, Belgrade, Serbia: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, 2000.


Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, OTPOR: In or Beyond Politics, Belgrade, Serbia: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, 2001.


Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, The Hague Tribunal: Discord Between Us and the World, Belgrade, Serbia: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia, 2001.


Hesse, Carla and Robert Post (eds.), Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999.


Hill, MLG. “Reshaping our words, re-shaping our world: crimes against humanity and other signs of the times” Social Science Journal 39 (4): 539-557, 2002.


Hinton, Alexander Laban (ed.), Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide, Berkeley and LA, Ca.: University of California Press, 2002.


Hirsch, Herbert, Genocide and the Politics of Memory: Studying Death to Preserve Life, Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995.


Hobsbaum, Eric. On History, New York: The New Press, 1997.


Honig, Jan Willem and Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, New York, Penguin Books, 1996

Human Rights Watch, Truth and Partial Justice in Argentina: An Update, New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991.


Huyse, Luc “Justice after Transition: On the Choices Successor Elites Make in Dealing with the Past,” in Law and Social Inquiry, vol. 20, pp. 51-78, 1995.


Ignatieff, Michael (1996) “Articles of Faith”, Inex on Censorship 5/96, September, http://www.niza.nl/uk/publications/001/ignatieff.htm.


Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona, Frames of remembrance : the dynamics of collective memory, New Brunswick [N.J.] : Transaction Publishers, 1994.


Jaspers, Karl, The Question of German Guilt, New York: Dial Press, 1948. (In German: Die Schuldfrage)


Johnstone, Diana.  “Selective Justice in the Hague,” The Nation 265(8): 16-21, Sept. 22, 1997.

Judah, Tim, Kosovo: War and Revenge, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000.

Judah, Tim, The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997.


Kaufman, Stuart J., Modern Hatreds : the symbolic politics of ethnic war, New York : Cornell University Press, 2001.

Kiernan, B.,  “The Cambodian Genocide”, in Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions, George J. Andreopoulos, ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 191-228, 1997.

Kamminga, Menno. “Lessons Learned from the Exercise of Universal Jurisdiction in Respect of Gross Human Rights Offenses” Human Rights Quarterly23(4), November 2001.

Kritz, Neil J., ed., Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes, vols. 1-3, United States Institute of Peace, 1995.

Kritz, Neil J. and William A. Stuebner, “A Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Bosnia and Herzegovina: Why, How and When?” paper presented at the Victimology Symposium, Sarajevo, Bosnia, May 9-10, 1998.

Krog, Antjie, Country of My Skull, New York: Three Rivers Press, 1999. 

Kushner, Harold S., How Good Do We Have To Be: A New Understanding of Guilt and Forgiveness, Boston: Little Brown, 1996.

Laber, Jeri, “Witch Hunt in Prague”, in The New York Review of Books, XXXIX, (8), 1992.


Lederach, John Paul, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997.


Leebaw, Bronwyn Anne. "Restorative Justice for Political Transitions: Lessons From the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission," Contemporary Justice Review. Vol. 4, 2001: pp. 267-289.
Leebaw, Bronwyn Anne. "Working off the Past: Theorizing Transitional Justice in Post War and Post Cold War Debates." Presented at the panel, Memory and Justice at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington DC, September 2, 2000.

Leebaw, Bronwyn Anne. "Reconciling Through the Law: the Evolution of a Prosecutorial Approach to Transitional Justice." Presented at the panel, The Content of Justice at the Annual Meeting of the Law and Society Association, Miami Beach, May 30, 2000.

Lerner, M.J. "The Justice Motive in Human Relations." In The Justice Motive in Social Behavior: Adapting to Times of Scarcity and Change. Eds. Melvin J. Lerner and Sally C. Lerner. Plenum Press, 1981. Also other chapters by Hogan, Emler, Miller and Vidmar.


Levi, Primo, The drowned and the saved, translated from the Italian by Raymond Rosenthal, New York: Summit Books, c1988.


Levinson, Sanford, Written in stone : public monuments in changing societies, Durham [N.C.] ; London : Duke University Press, 1998.


Lewis-Herman, J. Trauma and Recovery, New York: Basic Books, 1992.


Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, New York, Free Press, 1993.


Lorey, David and William Beezley, eds. Genocide, Collective Violence, and Popular Memory. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.


Macdonald, Dwight. Memoirs of a Revolutionist, New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1957. (See reprinting of “The Responsibility of Peoples”, originally printed in Politics, March 1945. On collective guilt, post WW II.

Maier, Charles. The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, And German National Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Malan, Rian, My Traitor's Heart: A South African Exile Returns to Face his Country, His Tribe and His Conscience, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, c1990.


Mamdani, Mahmood. "Reconciliation Without Justice," Southern African Review of Books 46, Nov/Dec 1996.


Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers


Marais, Hein. South Africa: Limits to Change: the Political Economy of Transition. London: Zed Books, 1998.

Matic, Veran. “Rejecting the Truth: Viewer Reaction to the Television Documentary ‘A Cry from the Grave,’ http://www.b92.net/doc/sarajevo/reaction.php

McCullough, Michael E., Kenneth I. Pargament, and Carl E. Thoresen (eds.), Forgiveness : theory, research, and practice, New York; London : Guilford Press, c2000.

McDonald, Gabrielle K. “The Changing Nature of the Laws of War” Military Law Review 156:30-51, June 1998.

Meister, Robert and Catherine Lu. "Human Rights and the Politics of Victimhood – Debate" Ethics & International Affairs 16, 2, 2002. pp. 91-126.

Melton, Gary B. “The Law is a Good Thing (Psychology Is, Too): Human Rights in Psychological Jurisprudence,” Law and Human Behavior 16, 1992: p. 381, 384

Meron, Theodor. “The Humanization of Humanitarian Law.” American Journal of International Law 95 (2), April 2000: 239-278.

Mertus, Julie A., Kosovo: How Myths and Truths Started a War, Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1999.

Mertus, Julie A., “Truth in a Box: the Limits of Justice Through Judicial Mechanisms,” in The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice, Abdullahi An-Na’im and Ifi Amadiume, eds. (New York:  Zed Books, 2000).


Mertus, Julie A., “The Dayton Peace Accords: Lessons from the Past and for the Future,” in Minority Rights in the New Europe, Peter Cumper and Steven Wheatley, eds. (Lancaster, UK: Kluwer, 1999).


Mertus, Julie A., “Only a War Crimes Tribunal: Triumph of the International Community, Pain of Survivors,” in War Crime : The Legacy of Nuremberg, Belinda Cooper, ed. (New York: TV Books, 1999).


Minow, M., Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence, Boston, Mass.: Beacon, 1998.


Montville, J.V., “The Healing Function in Political Conflict Resolution” in Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice: Integration and Application, D. Sandole and H. van der Merwe, eds. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1993.


Montville, J.V., “Complicated Mourning and Mobilization for Nationalism”, in Social Pathology in Comparative Perspective: The Nature and Psychology of Civil Society, J. Braun, ed. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995.


Moran, John P., “The Communist Torturers of Eastern Europe: Prosecute and Punish or Forgive and Forget?” in Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 27 (1), pp. 95-109, 1994.


Murphy, Jeffrie G., Forgiveness and mercy, Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1988.


Mydans, Seth, “Side by Side Now in Cambodia: Skulls, Victims and Victimizers” in New York Times, May 27, 1996, A6.


Nader, Laura and E. Combs-Schilling, “Restitution in cross-cultural perspective”, in J. Hudson and B. Gallaway (eds), Restitution in Criminal Justice, Lexington, Massachusetts: Heath Publishing Company, 1976.


Nagorski, Andrew, “The Politics of Guilt: Austria’s Bigot, Europe’s Burden”, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2000, pp. 18- 22.


Neier, Aryeh. “Rethinking Truth, Justice, and Guilt after Bosnia and Rwanda”, in Hesse, Carla and Robert Post (eds.) Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999, pp. 39-52.


Neier, Aryeh, War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror, and the Struggle for Justice, New York: Times Books, 1998.


Neier, Aryeh, “What Should Be Done About the Guilty?” in New York Review of Books, February 1, 1990, p. 34.


Neuffer, Elizabeth, “Justice at Hague Moves Slowly for Bosnia Rape Victims,” Boston Globe, Sunday 11 January 1998, sec. A, p. 10.


Newbury, David.  “Understanding Genocide.” African Studies Review 41:1 (April 1998): 73-97.

Nino, Carlos Santiago. Radical Evil on Trial. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1996.

O'Donnell, Guillermo and Philippe Schmitter. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions About Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1986.

Oh, Ingyu and Douglas Ishizawa-Grbic, “Forgiving the Culprits: Japanese Historical Revisionism in a Post-Cold War Context”, International Journal of Peace Studies, Volume 5, Number 2, Autumn/Winter 200, pp. 45-59.

Olick, Jeffrey, “Genre Memories and Memory Genres: A Dialogical Analysis of May 8, 1945 Commemorations in The Federal Republic of Germany”, American Sociological Review, Vol. 64, June, 1999, pp. 381-402.

Orentlicher, Diane. "Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime" in 100Yale Law Review, 2537

Osiel, Mark J. “Making Public Memory, Publicly” in Hesse, Carla and Robert Post (eds.) Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999.

Osiel, Mark. Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory, and the Law. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997. Chapter 8 and conclusion.

Paris, Erna. Long Shadows: Truth, Lies and History. Toronto: Knopf, 2000.

Passerini, Luisa (ed.), Memory and Totalitarianism. International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 1, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992.

Popkin, Margaret L. (2000) Peace without Justice: Obstacles to Building the Rule of Law in El Salvador, University ark: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Popov, Nebojsa (ed.) The Road to War in Serbia: Trauma and Catharsis, Budapest: Central European University Press, 2000 (Serbian edition published in 1996).

Prendergast, J., and Smock, D., Postgenocidal Reconciliation: Building Peace in Rwanda and Burundi, USIP Special Report, September, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1999.


Quintal, A.L. “Rule 61: The ‘voice of the victims’ screams out for justice” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 36(3): 723-759, 1998.

Rieff, David. Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the failure of the West, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1995.

 Rieff, David and Roy Gutman, Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know, New York, W. W. Norton, 1999.

Ristic and Leposavic, Glasovi iz crne rupe: Sta ste radili u toku rata (Beograd: Samizdat FreeB92, 2000).

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi (ed.), Impunity and human rights in international law and practice, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Rosenbaum, Alan S. (ed.), Is the Holocaust unique? Perspectives on comparative genocide, Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1996.

Rosenberg, Tina, Haunted Lands: Facing Europe’s Ghosts After Communism, New York: Random House,1995.

Rosenberg, Tina, “Overcoming the Legacies of Dictatorship”, Foreign Affairs, May/June, 1995, pp. 134-152.

Rosenberg, Tina (1998) “Trying to Break the Cycle of Revenge in Bosnia,” in New York Times, November 22, 1998, sec. 4, 16.

Rotberg, Robert I. and Dennis Thompson, (eds.) Truth v. Justice, Princeton University Press, 2000.

Roth, Ken. “Human Rights in the Haitian Transition to Democracy”, in Hesse, Carla and Robert Post (eds.) Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999, pp. 93-131.

Rubin, Jeffrey Z., Dean G. Pruitt and Sung Hee Kim, Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement 2nd edition, NY: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1994.

Sa’adah, Anne, Germany's second chance : trust, justice, and democratization, Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1998.

Salzman, Todd. “Rape Camps as a Means of Ethnic Cleansing: Religious, Cultural, and Ethical Responses to Rape Victims in the Former Yugoslavia” Human Rights Quarterly 20(2), May 1998.

Schwartz, Vera. Bridge across Broken Time: Chinese and Jewish Cultural Memory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Shawcross, William. The Quality of  Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust and Modern Conscience, London, André Deutsch, 1984.

Sheleff, Leon S. The Bystander: Behavior, Law, Ethics, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1978.

Shklar, Judith. The Faces of Injustice. Yale University Press, 1990.

Shriver, D. W., Jr., An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Siegel, Richard Lewis, “Transitional Justice: A Decade of Debate and Experience”, in Human Rights Quarterly, 20, 1998, pp. 431-454.


Simma, Bruno and Andreas Paulus. “The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflicts: A Positivist View” American Journal of International Law Vol 93, No. 2 pp. 302-316.


SMMRI, “Vidjenje istine u Srbiji,” May 2001.


Soller, Michael (2000) “Radio Free Serbia: Can the Truth Reconcile a Shattered Land?”, Interview with Veran Matic, Los Angeles Times, reprinted on the internet site: Professional solidarity against nationalism and chauvinism, http://www.medienhilfe.ch/News/Archiv/2000/matic-lat.htm.


Solzhenitsyn, A. The Gulag Archipelago, T. Whitney translation, Harper and Row, 1974.


Stojanovic, Lazar. (ed.), Spotlight on War Crimes Trials (Djurdja Stanimirovic trans.) (Belgrade: Humanitarian Law Center, 2000)


Strategic Marketing Research, Perception of Truth in Serbia (abridged), poll conducted for B92, Belgrade, Serbia, May 2001.

Teitel, Ruti. Transitional Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Ruti Teitel. “Bringing the Messiah Through the Law”, in Hesse, Carla and Robert Post (eds.) Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999, pp. 177-193.

Teitel, Ruti From Dictatorship to Democracy: the Role of Criminal Justice, in Harold Koh, Ron Slye, Deliberative Democracy and Human Rights, Yale University Press, 1999.

Tutu, Desmond, No Future without Forgiveness, London: Rider, 1999.


United States Institute of Peace. Special Report: Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, January, 1995.


Van der Merwe, Hugo (1999) The Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Community Reconciliation: An Analysis of Competing Strategies and Conceptualizations, Ph.D. dissertation for the Institute of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, Michigan: UMI Dissertation Services.


Van Schaack B. “The definition of crimes against humanity: Resolving the incoherence” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37 (3): 787-850, 1999.


Vasiljevic, Vladan. Zlocin i odgovornost: Ogled o krivicnom pravu i raspadu Jugoslavije, Belgrade: Prometej, 1995.


Vinar, Marcelo. Violence d’Etat et Psychanalyse, Dunod, 1989.

Vinar, Marcelo and Maren Ulriksen de Vinar, Fracturas de Memoria (Cronicas de una Memoria por Venir, Col. Desaflos, 1992.

Volkan, V.D. The Need to Have Enemies and Allies, Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1988.


Volkan, Vamik D., Demetrios A. Julius and Joseph V. Montville (eds.), The Psychodynamics of International Relationships: Concepts and Theories, Vol. 1, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990.


Volkan, V.D. Bloodlines: From Ethnic Pride to Ethnic Terrorism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.


Watson, Rubie S., ed. Memory, History, and Opposition under State Socialism. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 1994.


Weine, Stevan M., When history is a nightmare : lives and memories of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina, New Brunswick, N.J. ; London : Rutgers University Press, c1999.


Weiner, Eugene (ed.), The Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence, New York: The Continuum Publishing Company, 1998.


Williams, Bernard. Shame and Necessity, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Wilmot, James, and Linda Van de Vijver, After the TRC: Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation, Ohio University Press, 2001.

Wood, Nancy, Vectors of memory: legacies of trauma in postwar Europe, Oxford; New York : Berg, 1999.

Worthington, E.L., Dimensions of Forgiveness: Psychological Research and Theological Perspectives, Philadelphia: Templeton Fund Press, 1998.

Wyschogrod, Edith, An ethics of remembering : history, heterology, and the nameless others, Chicago; London : University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Zalaquett, Jose, “Confronting Human Rights Violations Committed by Former Governments: Principles Applicable and Political Constraints”, in State Crimes: Punishment or Pardon: Papers and Report of the Conference, November 4-6, 1988, Wye Center, Maryland, Queenstown, Maryland: The Aspen Institute, 1989.

Zalaquett, Jose. "Balancing Ethical Imperatives and Political Constraints: The Dilemma of New Democracies Confronting Past Human Rights Violations," 43Hastings Law Journal 1425, 1992.

Zehr, Howard, Changing Lenses: A New Focus for Crime and Justice, Pennsylvania: Herald Press, 1990.

Zerubavel, Yael,  Recovered roots : collective memory and the making of Israeli national tradition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.


Human Rights and Transitional Justice Websites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library (www1.umn.edu/humanrts/)

Diana (www.law.uc.edu/Diana/)

UN Human Rights site (www.un.org/rights/)

International Court of Justice (www.igc.org/cij/)

European Court of Human Rights (www.dhcour.coe.fr/)

Coalition for International Justice (www.icj-cij.org/)

AAAS Science and Human Rights Program (http://shr.aaas.org/dhr.htm)

The United States Institute of Peace (www.usip.org)

For a primer on human rights research, see (www.law.harvard.edu/programs/HRP/Publications/research.html).

Miscellaneous Websites To Check:

http://bostonreview.mit.edu/BR27.2/cobban.html Moral Accounting: Trials

http://bostonreview.mit.edu/BR27.3/rothdesforges.html Moral Accounting: Trials

http://bostonreview.mit.edu/BR27.3/cobbanreplies.html Moral Accounting: Trials

Truth Commission Websites

South African TRC report on web:  www.struth.org.za/,